Bachelor, University Washington. Diploma in History Studies, Cambridge University, England. Master of Arts, University Maryland.
Lecturer history Damavand College, Tehran, Iran, 1970-1972. Analyst Central Intelligence Agency, 1974-1975, United States Agency for International Development (United States Agency for International Development), Islamabad, Pakistan, 1975-1978. With office investment affairs Bureau Economics United States Department State, 1978-1980, staff assistant to assistant secretary Near East & South Asian affairs, 1980-1981, economic officer Israel desk, 1981-1982.
Special assistant to under secretary for political affairs United States Department State, 1982-1984. 1st secretary political affairs United States Embassy, London, 1984-1988, political counselor Pretoria, South Africa, 1988-1991, New Delhi, 1991-1993. Assistant secretary for South Asian affairs United States Department State, Washington, 1993-1997, United States ambassador to Tunisia Tunis, 1997-2000, coordinator for Iraqi Reconstruction Baghdad, 2003—2005.
Senior vice president National Defense University, Washington, 2000—2003, Cassidy & Associates, 2005—2009. Non-military air coordinator for Pakistan United States Department State, Islamabad, since 2009.
Member American Economic Association, American Foreign Service Association, Phi Beta Kappa.
Married Arnols Lewis Raphel (divorced). Children: Alexandra Raphel, Anna Ashton.