He studied classical and Germanic philology at the universities of Erlangen and Göttingen, where his instructors were Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann and Jacob Grimm.
From 1840 he was privatdocent at the University of Erlangen, where in 1846 he became an associate professor In 1852 he became a full professor of German language and literature at Erlangen. In regards to historical and comparative phonology, Raumer understood the need for more specific phonetic concepts and vocabulary, and he proposed numerous refinements and clarifications in that area.
He stressed the basic role of Jacob Grimm"s work and the need to advance beyond lieutenant
He also conducted comprehensive research on German dialectology and orthography. In 1876 his ideas for spelling reform were partially carried out by the Prussian government.