In 2004, he was appointed Minister of Industry, Trade and Restructuring of the Economy. On 15 October 2007, he was appointed Minister of Finance and the Economy. In January 2010, he was elected president of the National Rally of Independents party.
Mezouar is also a former international basketball player.
In July 2012 Mezouar was involved in a scandal related to wage bonuses along with Noureddine Bensouda, the chief of the Moroccan treasury. Leaked documents, revealed that Bensouda and Mezouar issued orders to reward themselves with substantial monthly and quarterly bonuses.
The bonues totaled roughly MAD97,772/month (United States$12,000). Mezouar declared that the bonuses were legal basing the decision on a 1941 decree by the French colonial-head which is still enforced.
The French decree allowed such bonuses to be issued for high-ranking employees of the colonial administration.
The two employees who revealed this information, Abdelmajid Louiz and Mohammed Reda, were prosecuted and tried for leaking confidential documents. On 21 March 2013, Alouiz was sentenced to two-months suspended prison and a MAD2,000 fine, while Reda was acquitted. However both employees were excluded from their jobs.