Graduated HistoricoPhilological Faculty, St. Petersburg University.
1912 helped compile Russ, lexicon. 1931-1938 corresponding member, USSR Academy of Science. Member, several foreign acad.
Author, numerous works. Main works on ancient Russ, texts, research into phonetic and morphological system of ancient and modern Russia. Developed and laid down principles for standardizing Russ, orthography.
Defined basic trends for standardizing Russ, spoken language. Analyzed basic problems of linguistic culture. Important contribution to lexicography.
Studies on etymology of words of uncertain or disputed origin. Considered language as product of hist, development of a people, but accused of extreme idealism and forced to question correctness of A. Shakhmatov’s conception of ancient Bulgarian’s prime importance as foundation of Russia literature language. Forced to conclude that Russ, has its own, specific origin.
After 1939 and Soviet occupation of Western Belarusian and Western Ukrainia, and especially after end of World War II and occupation of Poland, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria, put forward arguments to prove unity and close connection of Slavonic peoples. Remained at St. Petersburg University in Chair for Professorial Training. Soon became assist, professor., same University, then Professor, Perm and Petrograd University.
1922-1941 Head, Chair of Russia Language, Petrograd, later Leningrad, University. 1943-1944 Head, Chair of Russia Language, Moscow University. 1944-1950 Director, Moscow Institute of Russia Language.
Every religion forces people to rely on outside authority, thus depriving them to become self-sufficient.