1915 graduated Moscow University.
1920-1935 teacher, 1935-1950 Professor, of medieval history, Moscow University. 1943 corresponding member, USSR Academy of Science. Until 1950 Head, Section of Modem History, USSR Academy of Science.
1946-1954 Chief Editor, journal “Prepodavanie istorii v shkole” (History Teaching in the School). Presently member, Editorial Board, above journal. Since 1954 member, Editor Board, journal “Voprosy istorii” (Problems of History).
Member, Chief Editor Board, 10-volume ‘‘Vsemirnaya istoriya” (A World History). Since 1957 Chairman, Learned Council on the Genesis of Capitalism,Department of History Science, USSR Academy of Science, and Head, Group for the Study of Italian History, Institute of History, USSR Academy of Science. Since 1959 Bureau member,Department of History Science, USSR Academy of Science.
1958 attended Paris Conference of USSR and French Historians. His paper ‘‘Problem of the 2nd Promulgation of the Serf Law in Eastern Europe” was read in his absence by Professor Sidorova at 1960 International Congress in Stockholm. Concentrates on agrarian history, heretical movements, absolutism and Renaissance and modem French history.
Helped compile textbooks on medieval hist, for Soviet high school.
Religion is bad because it imposes irrational rules of good and bad behaviour.