Certified English proficiency, University Michigan, 1980. Doctor of Medicine cum laude, University Turin, 1989. Certified, Education Commission Foreign Medical Graduates, Philadelphia, 1990.
Intern Hopital Neurochirurg, Lyon, France, 1991. Attending staff pain relief and neuromodulation unit Department Neuroscis., Turin, since 1993. Lt Italian Army, 1990-1991.
Lieutenant Italian Army, 1990-1991. Member New York Academy Sciences.