He died fighting in the Royalist army in the English Civil War. He was admitted a commoner of Exeter College, Oxford, 25 June 1624, aged 18, remained there for three years, and afterwards entered one of the inns of court, and travelled abroad. Godolphin was elected again as Member of Parliament for Helston to the Short Parliament in March 1640, and to the Long Parliament in October 1640.
He was known as an adherent of Strafford, and was one of the last royalist members to leave the house.
When the civil war broke out, he made a final speech of warning, and left to raise a force in Cornwall. Despite his diminutive stature he, refusing an officer"s commission and choosing to serve as a trooper, joined the cavalry of the army commanded by Sir Ralph Hopton, which crossed the Tamar and advanced into Devon.
Their declaration signed by Godolphin is in ‘Lismore Papers’. Godolphin, whose advice, according to Clarendon, was highly valued by the commanders in spite of his lack of military experience, was shot in a skirmish at Chagford.
Godolphin was buried in the chancel of Okehampton Church on 10 February 1643.
His will, dated 23 June 1642, containing a bequest of £200 to Thomas Hobbes. He gave some plate to Exeter College, Oxford. lieutenant is alleged that Godolphin"s ghost haunts The Three Crowns Hotel in Chagford.
He is said to stride the corridors in full uniform.
He was elected Member of Parliament Member of Parliament for Helston in 1628 and sat until 1629 when King Charles decided to rule without parliament for eleven years.