AB, Radcliffe College, 1957. Doctor of Philosophy, Johns Hopkins University, 1964. Doctor of Medicine, University Virginia, 1980.
Postgraduate, University Virginia, since 2001.
Fellow in physiological chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1964-1967; assistant professor of chemistry, U. South Florida, Tampa, 1967-1969; assistant professor orthopedics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, 1969-1973; assistant professor surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, 1973-1978; resident in surgery, Hospital University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1980-1983; resident in surgery Cooper Hospital, Rutgers University Medical School, Camden, New Jersey, 1983-1985; assistant professor surgery, Rutgers University Medical School, Camden, New Jersey, 1985-1986; assistant professor surgery, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, 1986-1991; associate professor, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, since 1991.
Member American College of Surgeons, American Chemical Society, New York Academy Science, Royal Society Chemistry, Association for Academy Surgery, Shock Society, International Society Oxygen Transport to Tissue, American Federation Clinical Research, Tennessee Medical Association, Southeastern Surgical Congress, Association for Surgical Education, Association for Women Surgeons, Tennessee Geriatric Association, American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, Sigma Xi.