Bachelor in History, Stanford University, California. Doctor of Medicine, New York University School Medicine, 1971. Doctor (honorary), University East Anglia, 2007.
Doctor of Science (honorary), University Warwick, 2008.
Intern internal medicine Medical College Virginia Hospitals, Richmond, 1971-1972, resident gastroenterology, 1972-1974. Gastrointestinal fellow University of California at Los Angeles, 1977-1979. Chairman department internal medicine University Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor.
Physician-in-chief University Michigan Medical Center. Board directors SmithKline Beecham Beecham Pharmaceutical, 1994, president healthcare services division, 1996—1999, chairman research & development, 1999—2001, GlaxoSmithKline, 2001—2006. Executive director Global Health program Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, since 2006.
Master: American College of Physicians. Fellow: Imperial College Medicine. Member: National Academy of Sciences, Academy Medical Sciences, Institute Medicine, American Gastroenterological Association (past president, Friedenwald Medal), Association American Physicians.