Taher Badakhshi did his primary studies in Badakhshan, and then moved to Kabul for continuing his higher studies in economics and law at the University of Kabul. During this time he was very close to a Kabul-based literature scene under the influence of Sufi poets Ghulam Sarwar Dehqan and Khalilullah Khalili, both supporters of Habibullah Kalakani. He was actively involved in literature circles of Kabul.
He was a co-ordinator of the first congress of People"s Democratic Party of Afghanistan, the first main leftist democratic party in Afghanistan.
He soon created the "Mahfili Intezar" (Waiting circle) movement and later the SAZA Political movement speaking out for the basic political rights and for amelioration of economic and educational conditions for all non-Pashtun people in Afghanistan. The main political background was built by third world freedom movements like in Vietnam, Palestine, or African anti-colonial fights and it was orientated on Non-Aligned Movement.
His political activities were mainly based against the Pashtun ethno-dominance in relevant fields like politics, finance, military, police. Asking for equal rights of all other ethnicities in Afghanistan.
He continuited his work in the Ministry of Education during the regime of Nur Muhammad Taraki after the leftist coup d état in April 1978.
Later he was arrested by the Taraki government. His 20th death anniversary was held in Dushanbe in 2000 by the Institute of Oriental Studies as well as his 32nd anniversary in February 2011 in Kabul.