Prior to playing professionally, he played college baseball at Fresno State. Scheppers played shortstop at Dana Hills High School in Dana Point, California. When his high school team experienced a shortage of pitchers, Scheppers was pressed into action as a pitcher.
The Baltimore Orioles drafted Scheppers in the 29th round of the 2005 Major League Baseball Draft, but he opted to attend California State University, Fresno to play for the Fresno State Bulldogs instead.
Fresno State recruited Scheppers as a shortstop, but used him as a pitcher. Due to the shoulder injury, Scheppers fell in the 2008 Major League Baseball Draft to the second round, with the 48th overall selection, where he was selected by the Pittsburgh Pirates.
Due to health concerns, the Pirates offered Scheppers less money than he was hoping for, and he opted not to sign with the Pirates. Scheppers signed with the Saint Paul Saints of the American Association of Independent Professional Baseball for the 2009 season.
Scheppers was chosen in the supplementary first round, with the 44th overall selection, of the 2009 Major League Baseball Draft by the Texas Rangers.
Teams passed on him again due to injury concerns, as some believed he had a partially torn labrum, which would require surgery. Scheppers also was the pitching coach for the junior varsity baseball team at Trabuco Hills High School in Mission Viejo, California, for the 2009 season. On September 17, 2009, Scheppers signed with the Texas Rangers to a minor league deal.
Scheppers was selected to represent the United States in the All-Star Futures Game in 2010.
On June 7, 2012, Scheppers was called up to the majors when Derek Holland was placed on the 15-day disabled list. On the same day, he made his Major League debut for the Texas Rangers in relief of Yu Darvish, and gave up a solo home run and struck out 2 in 1 2/3 innings in a 7-1 loss to the Oakland Athletics.
In 2013, Scheppers made 76 relief appearances for the Rangers, tied for the third-most in the American League. The Rangers named Scheppers their Opening Day starting pitcher in 2014.
However, he experienced right elbow inflammation and went on the disabled list in April, after making four starts.
He returned to the Rangers in June as a relief pitcher, and returned to the disabled list with elbow inflammation after making four appearances. Scheppers missed the last two months of the 2015 season with a bone bruise in his left knee. Scheppers was diagnosed with torn cartilage in his left knee before the 2016 season, and will require surgery that will keep him out for half of the season.