Since joining the Department of State in 1984, her foreign postings have included: Poland, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, the Soviet Union, Belgium, Russia, and Turkmenistan. Gfoeller has served as a Deputy Chief of Mission in Turkmenistan, Deputy Principal Officer in Russia, and Consul General in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. She was awarded the Rusk Fellowship in 2000.
Additionally, Gfoeller authored a book on United States. foreign policy interests in the Caspian Basin and has taught Masters degree classes in political science at Georgetown University.
From October 22, 2008, to March 8, 2011, she served as Ambassador to the Kyrgyz Republic.