Teodor was Rector of Przemyśl and canon of Krakow since 1687, Bishop of Chełmno since 1699 and Bishop of Warmia since 1711. In 1722 Teodor became Archbishop of Gniezno and Primate of Poland. He became interrex after the death of August II of Poland and led the election of a new King in Wola.
In 1733 he declared and crowned Stanisław I Leszczyński as the successor of August II on the Polish throne.
He supported Leszczyński during the following War of the Polish Succession. Teodor was a protector of the Jesuits order and benefactor of churches, monasteries and palaces.