Student, Sultan Abdul Hamid College, Alor Setar, Malaysia. Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, University Malaya, Singapore, 1947. Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, King Edwar VII College Medicine, Singapore, 1952.
Postgraduate, Harvard University, Master of Arts, 1967. HHD (honorary), Mongolia University, 1997. Doctor of Laws (honorary), Dhaka University, 2004.
Degree in Islamic Thought (honorary), Universiti Malaya, 2004. Doctor of Philosophy in Science (honorary), Universiti Tunku Adbul Rahman, 2005. Doctor of Laws (honorary), International Islamic University, Islamabad, 2005.
Doctor of Philosophy (honorary), University Gezira, 2005. Doctor of Philosophy (honorary), University Waseeda, Japan, 2005. Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering Technology (honorary), Universiti Kuala Lumpur, 2006.
Medical officer malaysian Government Service, Alor Star, Langkawi and Perlis, Malaysia, 1953-1957. Private practice Malaysia, 1957-1972. Malaysian representative to United Nations New York, 1963.
Member parliament for Kota Setar Selatan Government of Malaysia, 1964-1969. Member supreme council United Malays National Organization, 1965-1969, vice president, 1975-1978, president, 1978-1981. Senator Government of Malasia, 1973-1976.
Member parliament for Kubang Pasu Government of Malaysia, 1974-1990, minister education, 1974-1976, deputy prime minister, minister trade and industry, 1976-1981, prime minister, 1981—2003, minister of defense, 1981-1986. Minister of home affairs, since 1986. Chairman FIMA (Food Industry of Malaysia), 1973.
Chairman 1st Higher Education Council, 1968. Member Higher Education Advisory Council, 1972. Chairman University Kebangsaan Council, 1974.
Former chairman Kedah Anti Tuberculosis Association, chairman Kedah Child Welfare Council. Fellow: Academy Medicine Malaysia (honorary), Malaysian Maritime Institute, Selangor (honorary). Member: Equestrian Association Malaysia (honorary), Royal Selangor Golf Club (honorary).
Married Tun Doctor Siti Hasmah bt Mohd Ali, 1956. Children: Marina, Mirzan, Melinda, Mokhzani, Mukhriz, Maizura, and Mazhar.