As of November 1999, he serves as Advisor at the Islamic Research and Training Institute (IRTI) of the Islamic Development Bank (Inter-American Development Bank), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Prior to this position, he worked at the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency), Riyadh, for nearly 35 years, as Economic Advisor and then Senior Economic Advisor. He has also taught as Assistant and Associate Professor of Economics at the University of Wisconsin (Platteville), the University of Kentucky (Lexington), as Senior Economist and Associate Editor of the Pakistan Development Review at the Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, and as Reader (Associate Professor) at the Central Institute of Islamic Research (Pakistan).
He has lectured widely at a number of universities and professional institutes in different countries around the world, including the Harvard Law School, Loughborough University, United Kingdom, the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies, the London School of Economics, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, the University of Malaga, Spain, and Kyoto University, Japan.
He is on the editorial board of a number of professional journals and has acted as referee for a number of others, including the Economic Journal of the Royal Economic Society, United Kingdom, the Journal of Socio-Economics and the Thunderbird International Business Review.