1912 graduated Natural Science Department, Physico-Mathematical Faculty, 1st Moscow University. 1915 graduated Medical Faculty, same university.
1945-1950 Director, Medicine Bureau, Presidium, USSR Academy of Medical Science. Member, Editor Committee Studying Publ. of the Classics of Soviet and Foreign Medicine. Со-Editor, ‘‘History of Medicine” section, “Bolshaya meditsinskaya entsiklopediya” (Large Medical Encyclopedia), 2nd edition.
Full member, Soviet National Association, of Natural Science and Engineering Historians. Chairman, Cinema Co unc. and member, Learned International Council, USSR Ministry of Health. Board member, All-Union and Moscow Society of Anatomists, Histologists and Embryologists.
Since 1954 member, International Society of Medicine Historians. 1958 attended International Conference on History, of Medicine, Montpellier. 1960 presented a paper at International Congress on History, of Medicine, Athens.
Attended: 6th International Congress of Medicine and Anatomy Historians, Holland. 8th Congress, Rome; 14th Congress, Rome and Salerno. Supervised translation and commentaries of A. Vesalins’ ‘‘De Humani Corporis Fabrica” (1950-1954).
Executive Editor, translation of Ibn-Sina’s “A Treatise on the Canon of Medicine” (1954-1956). Translated and edited F. Merkel’s 6-volume “Anatomiya cheloveka” (Anatomy of Man) and Frey’s “Atlas anatomii cheloveka” (Atlas of Human Anatomy), etc. Works deal with morphology of vegetative nervous system and hist, of anatomy and medicine.
1915-1918 intern, Hospital Surgery Clinic, 1918-1924 Assistant, Chair of Anatomy, Moscow University. 1924-1935 lecturer, 1935-1944 Professor, and Head, Chair of Normal Anatomy, Kazan Medicine Institute, formerly Medical Faculty, Kazan University.
Religious books are outdated, because laws by nature have to change with the advance of societies and technology.