Master of Science, U. Helsinki, Finland, 1958; licensed in philosophy, U. Helsinki, Finland, 1970; Doctor of Philosophy, U. Helsinki, Finland, 1973.
Mathematics teacher, various high schools, Finland, 1958-1972; research fellow, Academy Finland, Helsinki, 1973-1984; associate professor, U. Tampere, Finland, 1985-1988; professor, U. Tampere, since 1988.
Sergeant Finnish Artillery, 1952-1953. Member Academy of Finland (member Humanistic Council 1989-1991), Finnish Academy Science and Letters, Finnish Society for Aesthetics (president since 1988).
Married Pirkko Ellen Pollanen, April 7, 1962. Children: Mikko, Janne.