1910 graduated St. Petersburg Women's Medicine Institute. 1912-1917 emigrated to Switzerland, specializing in obstetrics and gynecology at Geneva.
S. early years active in revolutionary movement. 1918 member, Collegium, Popular Commissariat of Society Security. In 1930's Editor, journals “Okhrana materinstva i mladenchestva” (Mother and Child Care), “Gigiena i akusherstvo” (Hygiene and Obstetrics), “Zhurnal po izucheniyu rannego detskogo vozrasta” (Journal for the Study of Early Childhood).
1910-1912 country physician. 1907 insurance doctor for Petrograd Cable Plant. 1918-1920 Head,Department of Mother and Child Care, at Popular Commissariat of Society Security, and 1920-1931 at Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Popular Commissariat of Health.
1924-1930 Head, Chair of Society Hygiene of Mother and Child, Moscow Institute of Mother and Child Care, founded by her in 1922 and bearing her name. 1930-1934 Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Deputy Popular Commissar of Society Security. 1934-1938 Deputy Chief State Sanitary Inspector, Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Popular Commissariat of Society Security.
1938-1959 Director, Moscow Central Postgraduate Medicine Institute.
Religious edicts impose irrational rules on people’s behaviour.