Graduated from the Zhukovskii Air Force Academy, 1925.
Joined the Red Army, 1920. Professor of the Zhukovskii Academy, 1926. Specialist in aerodynamics, wrote on the flight characteristics of aeroplanes.
Lieutenant-general, 1946. Chairman of the Aircraft Section of the Scientific Committee of the Soviet Armed Forces, 1949-1968.
Religion stops people thinking in a logical and reasonable way.