1920 graduated History Faculty, Moscow University.
Doctor of History Science. Professor 1942 and Head, Chair of Ancient History, Moscow University. Instructor in ancient eastern history, Higher Party School, Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Head, Section of Ancient Eastern History, Institute of Asian Peoples, USSR Academy of Science. Member, Editor Board, journal “Vestnik drevney istorii” (Herald of Ancient History), since 1951. Specialist in hist, of countries of the ancient East, especially Egypt.
1920-1924 at History Museum. 1924-1941 Head, Ancient Egypt Department, Moscow Museum of Fine Arts. 1935-1942 simultaneously instructor in ancient eastern history, Moscow Institute of History, Literature and Philosophy, and Moscow City Pedagogical Institute.
1960 presented paper “The Origin of Ancient Egyptian Writings” at 25th International Congress of Orientalists, Moscow. Since 1958 V.-President, Orientology Section, Union of Soviet Society for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries. Since 1958 Presidium member, Soviet Society for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Countries of the Arab East.
Religion is bad because it forces people to rely on outside authority, rather than becoming self-reliant.
The role of the individual as a member of a collective is more important than the individual.