Vyacheslav Alekseevich graduated from the Medical-Surgical Academy in 1882.
Vyacheslav Alekseevich was an assistant of the Department of Pathological Anatomy in 1886-1887. Later as military doctor in 1887-1890. Also he worked as privat-docent of the Medical-Surgical Academy in 1891-1894. Professor of General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy since 1894, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine in 1911-1918 of the University of Yuryev. Head of the Department of Pathological Anatomy of the Medical Faculty of the Voronezh State University in 1918-1931, at the same time he was head of the Pathological Institute at the Voronezh State University. Since 1934 he worked in the laboratory of the Voronezh Cancer University.
Under the chairmanship of Afanasyev, the first meeting of the Council of the Medical Faculty of Voronezh State University was held. Until mid-November 1918, Vyacheslav Alekseevich worked as the dean of the medical faculty. He studied histogenesis of tuberculosis, neoplasms, endocrine diseases, problems of bacteriology.