Bachelor of Arts, Yankton (South Dakot) College, 1941; Master of Arts, Harvard, 1943; Doctor of Philosophy, Harvard, 1951; Master of Science, Simmons College, Boston, 1962.
Associate professor of history, Simmons College, 1947-1952; assistant librarian book selection, Harvard, 1952-1964; lecturer history and literature, Harvard, 1961-1964; Archibald C. Coolidge bibliographer, Harvard, 1964-1966; professor of history, U. Massachusetts, Boston, 1966-1986; professor emeritus, U. Massachusetts, 1986-1992; director libraries, U. Massachusetts, 1969-1984. Visiting lecturer McGill University School Library Science, 1966-1978.
Member American History Association, Modern Language Association, American Library Association, Society 18th Century Studies, Société Européenne—de Culture.
Married Maria Schweinburg, October 6, 1945. Children– John, Carol, Barbara.