Bachelor, University of Minnesota, 1951; Master of Arts, University of Minnesota, 1953; postgraduate, Royal Academy Music, London, 1953-1954; Doctor of Philosophy, University of Minnesota.
Instructor music, University of Minnesota, 1955-1959;
assistant professor music, Chico (California) State University, 1959-1960;
professor music, San Francisco State University, 1960-1991;
professor emeritus, San Francisco State University, since 1991. Visiting professor composition U. Indiana, Bloomington, 1992, Stanford University, 1992-1994. Artist in residence Briarcombe Foundation, Bolinas, California, 1983.
Visiting artist American Academy in Rome, 1990.
Married Harriet Christiansen, 1948 (divorced 1978). Children: Alan, Craig, Drew, Grant.