In 1758, he entered Daventry Academy at the behest of his teacher and minister, William Hextal.
In 1763 he became the minister at Benn"s Garden Chapel in Liverpool, a wealthy and well-connected congregation. In 1770 he moved to Warrington to be the minister of the Cairo Street Chapel and a tutor of rhetoric and modern languages at Warrington Academy. He remained there until 1785, when he was called to be the minister of the Octagon Chapel, Norwich.
In Norwich Enfield"s congregation assembled prominent families: the Martineaus, two unrelated Taylor families (those descending from John Taylor his predecessor at the Octagon, and that of William Taylor), and several others
His reputation was for bringing those of different views into polite discussion,, and he founded the Speculative Society, including Anglican and nonconformist clergy, and physicians. Enfield died on 3 November 1797.