He served as the fourth Governor of the Arkansas Territory and United States Senator for Arkansas. He had intended to study law, but with the outbreak of the War of 1812 he enlisted in a company of volunteers at Fort McHenry. After the war, he moved to Gallatin, Tennessee, where he was admitted to the bar in 1817.
Fulton was military secretary to General Andrew Jackson during the First Seminole War in 1818.
In 1820, he settled in Florence, Alabama and became county judge in 1822. Fulton was appointed Secretary of the Arkansas Territory by President Andrew Jackson in 1829.
Fulton moved to Little Rock to take up his new responsibility. He served as Secretary until 1835, when he was appointed Governor of the Territory.
When Arkansas was admitted as a state in 1836, Fulton became one of its first Senators.
Fulton remained a Senator until his death in 1844. Fulton died at his home in Little Rock and was buried in the historic Mount Holly Cemetery in Little Rock. Fulton County, Arkansas is named for Fulton.
In the Senate he became a member of the Democratic Party.