Master of Arts, Doctor of Philosophy Harvard University, 1935, 1938. Honorary Dr Rer. Policy University Saarbrücken, W. Germany.
Instructor, Tutor, Harvard University, 1936-1941. Assistant Professor, Association Professor, Swarthmore College, 1941-1949. Association Professor, Professor, Director, Center Research Economics Development, University Michigan, 1949-1982,1963-1970.
Visiting Professor,University,Zurich, 1952,1969, 1971, 1973-1979, Heidelberg, 1966, Munster, 1966, Bern 1971, Ibadan (Nigeria), 1974, Hawaii at Manoa, 1982. Head, Economics Planning Unit, Federal Ministry Economics Development, Lagos, 1960-1962. Member, Economics Section, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 1967.
Consultant, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, USAID, Ford Foundation. Professor Emeritus, University Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America, since 1982.
The joint article with Samuelson analyses for the first time the precise relationship between the prices of goods and relative shares of factors. The other trade articles establish an ‘import multiplier’. The East German input-output study, measures the gains from trade as defined by Samuelson, i.e. as an improvement in the input-output relationship as the consequence of factor reallocations due to trade.
The Structure of the East German Economy measures the Gross National Product of a communist country from the production side. It is also a product by product comparison with West German developments, the only instance in which the differences between two economies is due solely to the difference in types of economic system. The work on underdeveloped countries deals with problems and ways of translating theoretical insights into economic policies under actual (Nigerian and other African) circumstances.
It is argued that the recurrent budget rather than the plan or development budget is the central concern of economic policy-making where all decisions come together and all distortions and mistakes become apparent. The work on Schumpeter tries to show his relationship to later theoretical developments. It also deals with his economic policy writings and activities.