Diploma in History, Moscow State University, 1956. Doctor of Philosophy in History, Institute of Oriental Studies, Moscow, 1961.
Senior editor, head department, Oriental Literature Public House, Moscow, 1957-1962; research fellow, Institute Oriental Studies Academy of Sciences of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, Moscow, 1962-1973; associate professor, Hebrew U., Jerusalem, 1974-1977; Eliahu Elath professor of history of the Muslim peoples, Hebrew U., Jerusalem, 1978-1981; professor Uralic and Altaic studies, Indiana U., Bloomington, since 1981. Visiting member School History Studies, Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton, New Jersey, 1977-1978. Director Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, Indiana U., since 1985, Inner Asian and Uralic National Resource Center, since 1988.
Lieutenant artillery Soviet Army, 1943-1946. Member Association for Advancement of Central Asian Research, Association for Central Asian Studies.
Married Liliya Rosenberg, February 1, 1955. 1 child, Nataliya.