He graduated from Peking University and Guangdong University.
He was an important figure during the Reorganized National Government of China. His courtesy name was Zhihou (芝侯). In 1925, he became an instructor at the Whampoa Military Academy.
In 1931, he was appointed to the Chief of the Bureau for Education of the Beiping City Government.
In next October, he was appointed to the Committee of the Shanxi Provincial Government. In next September, he was appointed Superintendent of Education of the Training Team for Central Political Affairs.
In December 1941, he was promoted to Mayor of the Nanjing Special City, and stayed on this position until the Wang Jingwei regime collapsed. On September 26 the same year, Zhou Xuechang was arrested by Chiang Kaishek"s National Government.
On October 19, 1945 he was convicted of treason and surrender to the enemy and was sentenced to death.
In May 1947, his sentence was confirmed by the higher court. However, the Chinese Civil War occurred before his sentence could be carried out, and in January 1949, he was transferred to the Tilanqiao Prison in Shanghai. After the People"s Republic of China had been established, his treatment did not change, and he remained imprisoned to his death of illness on November 27, 1952.
Zhou Xuechang successively held the positions of Political Chief of the 2nd Division in the East Route Army of the Northern Expedition, Chairman of the Kuomintang"s Central Committee and Leading Member of the Beiping (Peking) Branch of the Kuomintang, et cetera From August 1939, Zhou Xuechang joined Wang Jingwei in creating the collaborationist Reorganized National Government of China, and was appointed Member of the Kuomintang"s Central Committee (Wang clique).
In 1938, he became Member of the Preparatory committee for Xikang Province. After the Reorganized National Government of China collapsed, on August 17, 1945, the former Director of the Taxation Police Bureau (稅警局隊長) Zhou Gao (周鎬) who was a subordinate of Zhou Fohai suddenly started arresting important members of the former government.