Bachelor of Science, Master of Science University London, 1948,1950. Doctor of Philosophy Johns Hopkins University, 1953.
Lector, Professor Economics and Social History, University Nottingham, 1953-1962, 1964-1982. Reader, Economics and Social History, University York, England, 1963-1964. Visiting Professor, Universities Columbia, 1962, Virginia, 1962-1963, Wisconsin, 1963, 1967, Stanford, 1967, Texas, Austin, 1978, Emory, Atlanta, 1979, 1983, Western Australia, Perth, 1980.
Emeritus Professor Economics and Social History, University Nottingham, England. Research Professor of Economics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, since 1984. Editorial Boards, Yorkshire Bulletin of Economic and Social Research, 1963-1964, History of Political Economy, since 1969, Research History Economics Thought and Methodology (JAI Press, 1983).
Editor, Hist, of Economics Thought Newsletter, 1968-1971.
Research focussed on British and American economic thought and policy, late seventeenth century to present day, emphasising links between economic thought, economic history, the role of economic ideas in intellectual history, and the relevance of the history of economics to the training of economists. Have undertaken pioneering research in the history of learned societies in economics in Britain and United States of America, and on the role of professional economists in post-1945 governments and international agencies. Methodological controversy has proved to be an enduring source of insights into developments in economic theory, technique, policy, ideology, and the organisation and structure of the social science professions.
Have stressed the subtle interrelationships between ‘internal’ and ‘external’ influences on the development of economics as a science, discipline, and profession. Principal influences: T. W. Hutchison, F. Machlup, M. Polanyi, T. S. Kuhn, and I. Lakatos. Current and prospective concern with the growth of relativism and subjectivism in the postpositivist era.