In 1939 he and 24 confrères were arrested by the Gestapo in Krakow and then sent to Auschwitz. Six months later he was transferred to the Dachau concentration camp, where he remained until the end of the war. After his release the Vicar General proposed that he go to then-Northern Rhodesia, where the Polish Jesuits had a mission.
He taught there for several years until being appointed Apostolic Administrator of the new Prefecture of Lusaka in 1950.
As the mission grew he was named Bishop and Vicar Apostolic on 11 September 1955. In 1959 he was appointed the first Metropolitan Archbishop of Lusaka.
He resigned from the see in 1969 so that an African could be appointed Archbishop. He participated in all the sessions of the Second Vatican Council and in the first Synod of Bishops in 1967, and in the 1994 Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops dedicated to Africa.
Created a Cardinal by John Paul II in the consistory of 21 February 1998.
He was Cardinal Priest of the Titulus South. Andreae in Quirinali. He died on 28 September 2007.
After his resignation he continued to serve as a missionary in Zambia and was a member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples from 1970 to 1991.