Initially, the physicist was educated at Highland Park High School. Some time later, Alan Guth attained Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degrees, graduating from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1969. Three years later, in 1972, he received Doctor of Philosophy degree in physics at the same educational institution.
Alan started to work as a physics instructor in 1971 at Princeton University, a post he held till 1974, when he was appointed a postdoctoral research associate at Columbia University. In 1977 Guth started to serve as a postdoctoral research assistant at Cornell University, a position he held until 1979. The following year, in 1980, Alan Guth was appointed a visiting associate professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he became Jerrold Zacharias Professor of Physics in 1989.
Beginning from 1984 to 1990 Guth acted as a staff member at Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.
Currently, Alan Guth is the Victor F. Weisskopf Professor of Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Alan Guth is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Astronomical Society and National Academy of Sciences.
Alan married Susan Tisch in 1971. The couple gave birth to two children - Lawrence David and Jennifer Lynn.