Bachelor, Cornell University, 1949. Master of Science, Columbia University, 1951. Doctor of Philosophy, Columbia University, 1958.
Chemist Sylvania Electric Company, Bayside, New York, 1951-1954. Scientist Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, 1959-1961, senior scientist, 1961-1963, supervisor research group, 1964-1983, member technical staff, since 1983.
Fellow American Association for the Advancement of Science. Member American Physical Society, American Geophysical Society, American Astronomical Society, Science, Mathematics and Environmental Information Analysis Center (president 1975-1978, since 1986), Phi Lambda Upsilon.
Married Avra Judith Friedman, November 27, 1958 (divorced 1981).