Bachelor of Science University London, 1936. DAg (H.C.) Giessen, Germany, 1977.
Reader, Russian Social Economics Studies, University London, 1958-1963. Director, Institute, Institution Soviet E. European Studies, Bonar Professor of Economics, University Glasgow, 1963-1979, 1963-1982. Professor Emeritus, Honorary Senior Research Fellow, University Glasgow, since 1982.
The evolution of the USSR and of Soviet-type economies. Economies of socialism. Efficiency criteria of nationalised industries in East and West.
The USSR as a model of development. Planning methods in the USSR and in developing countries. Socialist agriculture.
Russian and Soviet economic thought. Comparative systems; the interaction of political, economic and historical factors in Soviet history.