Bachelor of Arts University Oxford, 1939.
As a journalist, he put forward a view of British economic and political affairs which was sympathetic to the Left in a non-doctrinaire fashion, and was concerned with helping Britain rid herself of delusions about her economic strength and political importance. His books carefully related economic problems to his understanding of social problems, and were directed at educating the public rather than solving technical problems. His appointment to a chair at the European University Institute was a reflection of his own commitment to the idea of European union.
Journalist, Financial Times, 1947-1957, Observer, 1958-1961. Director Studies, Research Fellow, Director, Royal Institute, Institution International Affairs, 1961-1968, 1969-1971, 1972-1977. Professor of Economics, European University Institute, Institution, Florence, 1978-1981.