Bachelor, Bowdoin College, 1949; Master of Arts, Yale University, 1951; Doctor of Philosophy, Yale University, 1955.
Instructor, University of California, Berkeley, 1954-1962; professor, University of California, Berkeley, 1962-1991; professor emeritus, University of California, Berkeley, since 1991. County member Phi Beta Kappa, Berkeley, since 1985. Board member American Society 18th Century Studies, 1985-1990, Nouvelles Annales Ligne, Brussels, since 1986.
With United States Army, 1944-1946, European Theatre of Operations.