Student, Cornell Univercity, 1940-1942; Bachelor of Science, Moravian College, 1945; postgraduate, University of Pennsylvania, 1945-1946; research fellow, Harvard University, 1953-1955; Master of Arts, Columbia University, 1947.
Head science department, Adelphi Academy, 1946-1947; instructor, Brooklyn College, 1947-1949; teacher, New York City Public Schools, 1948-1949; head science section, test development department, Ednl. Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey, 1949-1953; director research, Boston University College Basic Studies, 1953-1954; senior science editor, Ginn & Company, Boston, 1955-1961; vice president, Crowell-Collier Ednl. Corporation, New York City, 1961-1968; executive editor, Collier's Encyclopedia, 1963-1968; executive editor, Collier's Encyclopedia Yearbook, 1963-1968; editor-in-chief, Merit Students Encyclopedia, 1961-1969; assistant editorial director corporation, Merit Students Encyclopedia, 1963-1968; managing editor, school division, Macmillan Company, 1968-1969; editor-in-chief, Encyclopedia Americana, Danbury, Connecticut, 1969-1990; vice president, editorial director, Grolier, Inc., Danbury, 1980-1990; creative director, The Readfern Group, Newtown, Connecticut, since 1990.
Fellow American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Psychological Society. Member New York Academy of Sciences, American Educational Research Association, Phi Delta Kappa.
Married Helen M. Burgard, April 11, 1953. Children– Claudia Elizabeth, Douglas Andrew.