Doctor of Medicine, University Malta, 1937. Diploma in Ophthalmology, Oxford University, 1946. Diploma in Ophthalmic Medicine and Surgery, London University, 1947.
Diploma in Medical Jurisprudence, S.A. London University, 1962. Doctor of Medicine (honorary), Beijing Medical College. Doctor of Laws (honorary), University Malta.
Army medical officer, 1939-1946. Clinical officer Royal Eye Hospital, London, 1946. Consultant St. Luke's Hospital, Victoria Hospital, King George V Hospital, Malta.
Medical consultant World Health Organization, 1952-1959. Member Parliament, Malta, 1966-1989. Minister of labour Malta, 1966-1971.
Minister foreign affairs Malta, 1987-1989. President of Malta, 1989-1994. Member panel Trachoma experts World Health Organization.
Visiting professor international affairs, University Malta.
Secretary general Nationalist Party, Malta, 1962-1974, deputy leader, 1974-1977, president executive committee. Fellow Royal College Surgeons (Edinburgh).
Married Maria Wirth, November 1941. Children: Marilise, Colin, Helen, Monica, Vincent, Patricia, Francis, Joseph (deceased), Anna.