Born near Belvidere, Illinois, Fuller attended the common schools. He studied law.
He was admitted to the bar in 1870 and commenced practice in Belvidere, Illinois. He was city attorney of Belvidere in 1875 and 1876 and served as prosecuting attorney for Boone County, Illinois 1876-1878. Fuller raised a provisional regiment for the war with Spain and was commissioned colonel of the Thirteenth Illinois Infantry by Governor John Riley Tanner.
He served as judge of the seventeenth judicial circuit 1897-1903.
He served as vice president of the People"s Bank of Belvidere for many years. Fuller was involved in the prosecution of serial killer Thomas Neill Cream in 1881 and in his pardon and release by Governor Joseph West. Fifer in 1891.
Fuller was elected as a Republican to the Fifty-eighth and to the four succeeding Congresses (March 4, 1903 – March 3, 1913). He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1912 to the Sixty-third Congress.
Fuller was elected to the Sixty-fourth and to the five succeeding Congresses and served from March 4, 1915, until his death at a hospital in Rochester, Minnesota, June 25, 1926.
On April 5, 1917, he voted against declaring war on Germany. He served as chairman of the House Committee on Invalid Pensions (Sixty-sixth through Sixty-ninth Congresses). He was interred in Belvidere Cemetery, Belvidere, Illinois.
Member Ho; member 58th to 62d Congresses (1903-1913) and 64th to 66th Congresses (1915-1921), 68th and 69th Congresses (1923-1927), 12th Illinois District
Married Sarah A. Mackay, April.