Bachelor of Science in Economics, University of Pennsylvania, 1951; AM, University of Pennsylvania, 1954; Doctor of Philosophy, University of Pennsylvania, 1967.
With foreign service Department of State, Washington, 1956-1980. Professor politics and history Juniata College, Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, from 1981. Visiting associate professor social science United States Military Academy, 1971-1974.
Consultant National Foreign Estimate Center, Department State, American Institute of Indian Studies, Asia Foundation, Asia Society, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Middle East Institute, National Defense University. Director Juniata Summer Seminar in India, 1986. Lecturer numerous university and institutes.
With United States Army, 1952-1954. Member American Institute Bangladesh Studies (chairman founding committee 1983-1988, president since 1988), American Institute Pakistan Studies (trustee since 1988, president since 1993), Middle East Institute, Association for Asian Studies (Middle Atlantic region advisory committee 1980-1988, executive committee 1989, treasurer 1989-1992, vice president 1992-1993, president 1993-1994), American Foreign Service Association, Rotary International.
Married Carol Alice Stuart, September 27, 1955 (divorced 1984). Children: Craig, Louise. Married Barbara Townsend Stevens, May 28, 1984.