Bachelor of Business Administration, Southern Methodist University, 1974. Master of Science in Management and Economics, Webster College, 1979. Postgrad., Squadron Officer School, 1984.
Postgrad., Air Command and State College, 1990. Postgrad. in National Security Strategy, National War College, 1995. Postgrad., National Security Management Course, Syracuse, New York, 1997.
Postgrad., Capstone, Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, 1998. Postgrad., Combined Forces Air Component Commander Course, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, 2002. Postgrad., United States-Russia Security Program, Harvard University, 2004.
Postgrad, United States-Black Sea Security Program, Harvard University, 2005. Postgrad, Leadership at the Peak, Center for Creative Leadership, Colorado Springs, 2007.