Degree in Astronomy, Moscow University, 1956. DPhysics and Mathematics, Moscow University, 1966.
Scientific researcher Academy of Sciences, Turkmenia, Ashkhabad, Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, 1956-1963. Postgraduate Moscow University, 1963-1966. Senior researcher Institute of Science Information, Moscow, 1966-1972.
Political prisoner Mordovia, Vladimir, Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, 1972-1977. Political emigre, editor-in-chief Bulletin Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics News Brief, Our Country and the World, Munich, Germany, 1978-1992. 1st deputy, editor-in-chief New Times, Moscow, since 1993.
Editor-in-chief Russian Bulletin on Human Rights, since 1993. Vice president Moscow branch All-Union Association Astronomers and Geodesists, 1969-1972. Board directors International Sakharov Hearings, Lisbon, Portugal, 1981-1983.
President Moscow Helsinki Group, since 1993.
Chief manager Fund for Help to Political Prisoners, Moscow, 1977. Member International Helsinki Association, Vienna, since 1980. Member Constitutional Assembly, Moscow, 1993.
Member communications of Law Projects by President by Russia, Moscow, 1993. Member Commision on Citizenship by President of Russia, Moscow, since 1994. Member Council of Public Chamber by President of Russia, Moscow, 1994-1995.
Member Memorial (History and Humanitarian Society).
Married Alexandra G. Voronkova, 1954 (divorced 1959). 1 child, Helena; married Galina I. Salova, August 5, 1960. 1 child, Veronica.