Bachelor, Princeton University, 1956; Master of Fine Arts, Princeton University, 1960; Master of Arts, Harvard University, 1960.
Music librarian, Princeton University, 1960-1965;
assistant music editor, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York City, 1965-1966;
music editor, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York City, 1967-1974;
music critic, The Nation, 1968-1993. Guest music critic New Yorker magazine, 1974. Member of faculty Aspen Music School, summer 1973, Juilliard School, 1980-1981, Manhattan School Music, 1989-1992, Juilliard School, since 1994.
Member of advisory county department music Princeton University, 1970-1978. Director american Music Center, 1970-1978. Board directors, member editorial com.New World Records.
Member American Musicol. Society (member editorial board journal. 1987-1989), Music Library Association, Music Critics Association, Century Association, Phi Beta Kappa.