Razi learned reading and writing, Islamic laws and Islamic science from his father. He continued his studies from Kamal Samnani and Majduddin al-Jili. He also studied Islamic law from Shafi`i school and Islamic theology from the Asharite school of Islamic theology.
After his studies, Razi traveled to various Muslim countries where he made countless followers. He is believed to have traveled Turkistan, Iran, India and finally settled down in Afghanistan. The places Razi traveled, he met with the local scholars and rulers who would take his expert consultations. It is mentioned that Razi was followed by 300 of his followers wherever he traveled and there were more than 1000 mules to carry his belongings which included heavy treasures from the regions he traveled from.
With the new religions like Ṣūfism coming into power and Islam getting divided into several sects the Shīʿites, the Sunnites and many other smaller sects under the power of the local ruler, Razi was a medium of communication who could spread the basic ideology of Isam among the people. It was during this attempt that Razi wrote al-Mabāḥith al-mashriqīyah (Eastern Discourses) which included his philosophical and truth-seeking aspirations, and commentaries through Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) and a broad range of observations from Qurʾān. Razi is mentioned to have written more than 100 books on various subjects including geometry, astronomy, medicine, grammar and theology.
Razi became popular among the royals and also put his influence on many rulers.
On several occasions, Razi had questioned Ismāʿīlī—a Shīʿite sect of Islam and had asked for their proof of identity. One of the member from Ismāʿīlī—a Shīʿite sect joined Razi as a pupil and had pointed knife on his chest. Some believe that death of Razi was not a natural incident but induced by his enemies or people of Ismāʿīlī—a Shīʿite sect whom Razi often affronted.
Razi’s greatest work which includes the commentary on the holy book of Quran is Mafatih al-ghayb which was translated to English with title The Keys to the Unknown. This which covers major explanations and observations from the book; the book covers around eight volumes. This work in writing is considered to have continued until the end of Razi’s life and it was still unfinished during his death. The book was then completed by his pupil who equally has the same philosophical ideologies.
There is a strong narration on the debating power of Razi. Razi was once teaching his students near a pond full of water. After a long debate, Razi was able to prove that the pond was empty. The crowd was furious with the argument and they threw Razi into the pond and asked why he was drowning if the pond was empty.
After much of his time in Herat, a Madrasa was created for Razi where he died in 1209.
Razi was religious and believed that there is no other religion greater than Islam.
There is very limited information on the political views of Razi. Razi became popular while the people were looking for someone to believe in in-between religious and political commotion.
Quotations: Razi in his testament mentioned: “I have explored the ways of kalam and the methods of philosophy, and I did not see in them a benefit that compares with the benefit I found in the Qur'an. For the latter hurries us to acknowledge that greatness and majesty belong only to Allah, precluding us from involvement into the explication of objections and contentions. This is for no other reason than because human minds find themselves deadened in those deep, vexing exercises and obscure ways [of kalam and philosophy]. Therefore, I say that everything that stands established by literal proofs concerning the necessity of Allah's existence, His oneness, His exemption from any and all partners, as well as His beginninglessness and pre-existence, His disposal of all things, His exclusive efficacy: that is what I also believe, and what I hope to meet Allah with.”
He was a master of debate and with equally low self-control. He could easily get angry and convert debate into arguments. He ensured that he won in the end of the talks. With his knowledge and influence, he has also harmed others. It was very easy for Razi to make enemies with his temper and low self-control.
There is not much information on Razi’s married life or if he ever married.