From 1887 to 1892 he studied economics in France, and then he spent one year studying agriculture at the University of California in Berkeley.
Returning to Mexico, he developed the Laguna Ranching District in Coahuila. In 1908 Madero published The Presidential Succession in 1910, a call for new leadership to replace the 35-year rule of Porfirio Díaz. In 1909 Madero established the National Antireelectionist Party, which nominated him as a presidential candidate.
Madero was arrested in Monterrey in June 1910 and in October fled to the United States, where he issued his Plan of San Luis, calling for armed struggle against the government. That fighting began the Revolution on November 20, 1910. Madero returned to Mexico in February 1911. Diaz resigned on May 25 and went into exile. Madero formed the Constitutional Progressive Party, which nominated him for the presidency and José Piño Suárez of Yucatán for the vice-presidency. Madero occupied the presidency from November 6, 1911, until he resigned at the point of a gun on February 19, 1913.
Madero made a fatal mistake by appointing General Victoriano Huerta as his chief of staff. Huerta rewarded him by ordering Madero and Piño Suárez shot in the back “while trying to escape” on February 22, 1913. Madero in death became the apostle of the Revolution, and his slogan, “Effective Suffrage, No Reelection,” the battle cry of the Revolution.