Bachelor, Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota, 1949. Master of Arts, University Iowa, Iowa City, 1956. Doctor of Philosophy, University Iowa, Iowa City, 1960.
From teaching assistant to professor emeritus University Iowa, Iowa City, 1957—1994, professor emeritus, since 1994. Instructor Minot (North Dakota) State College, 1957—1958, State University of New York, Binghamton, New York, 1960—1963. Assistant professor Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 1963—1968.
With United States Navy, 1945-1946, with United States Navy, 1951-1952.
Member of Society of America Music (program committee 1987, Lowens award committee 1989, chairman program committee 1992, Lowens award committee 1997), American Musicological Society (secretary, treasurer Gulf States chapter 1965-1967, member council 1977-1979, program committee Midwest chapter 1982-1983), American Musical Instrument Society (board directors 1976-1979, chairman program 1977, chairman nominating committee 1986), International Jew's Harp Society (honorary president for life).
Married Lois Ann Zanger, February 12, 1971. 1 child Susan stepchildren: Mark, Reed, Robert. Married Lois Irene Russell, August 15, 1956.
1 child Elizabeth.