Bachelor, Cornell University, 1947. Doctor of Philosophy, Cornell University, 1954.
From instructor to assistant professor department sociology and anthropology Oberlin (Ohio) College, 1955-1959. Assistant professor department sociology and anthropology Wayne State University, Detroit, 1959-1961. Associate professor department sociology and anthropology Washington University, St. Louis, 1961-1965, director Social Science Institute, 1963-1964.
Research associate professor, Institute Human Sciences Boston College, 1965-1968. Professor sociology and history University Pittsburgh, 1968-1988, professor emeritus sociology and history, since 1988. Director d'Etudes Center History Research, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Paris, 1973.
Visiting research scholar Max Planck Institute for History, Göttingen, Germany, 1978. Visiting professor department history Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, 1988-1991.
Sergeant United States Army, 1945-1947.
Children: Laura Jane, Amy Ruth.