Bachelor, University of Michigan, 1952; Master of Arts, University of Michigan, 1953; Doctor of Philosophy, University of Michigan, 1957.
Instructor, Albion (Michigan) College, 1957-1961; assistant professor, Albion (Michigan) College, 1961-1965; associate professor, Albion (Michigan) College, 1965-1970; professor department history, Albion (Michigan) College, 1970-1992; professor emeritus, since 1992.
Member Albion West Center Urban Renewal Advisory Commission, 1965-1967. Member Albion Planning Commission, 1971-1974. Member American Association of University Professors, American History Association (life), World History Association, International Society Comparative Study of Civilizations, American Academy Political and Social Science, Association Asian Studies (life), Middle East Studies Association (life), Rotary International.