Student, Evanston Community College, 1947-1949; Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, 1951; Doctor of Philosophy, Colorado State University, 1971.
Researcher in aerospace propulsion, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Cleveland, 1951-1958; manager space propulsion research, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, 1958-1974; professor physics and mechanic engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, 1974-1984; professor emeritus, Colorado State University, since 1984; department chairman physics, Colorado State University, 1979-1984; president, Front Range Research, Fort Collins, since 1984; vice president Research and Development, Commonwealth Science Corporation, Alexandria, Virginia, 1984-1996. Pioneer in field of electron bombardment ion thruster, 1960. Consultant ion source design and applications.
Served with United States Naval Reserve, 1944-1946. Fellow American Vacuum Society (Albert Nerken award 1991), American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (associate fellow, James H. Wyld Propulsion award 1969), Electric Rocket Propulsion Society (Outstanding Achievement in Electric Propulsion medal 2005). Member Tau Beta Pi, Pi Tau Sigma, Society Vacuum Coaters (Mentor award, 2010).
Married Elinor Mae Wheat, June 25, 1948. Children: Brian, Karin, Bruce, Cynthia.