Bachelor of Science, MANorthwestern University, 1945, 1946. Doctor of Philosophy Princeton University, 1951.
One of his most important contributions to economics was the concept of x-efficiency. In economics, x-efficiency is the effectiveness with which a given set of inputs are used to produce outputs. If a firm is producing the maximum output it can, given the resources it employs, such as men and machinery, and the best technology available, it is said to be technical-efficient.
The concept of x-efficiency was introduced by Harvey Leibenstein in his paper Allocative efficiency v. "x-efficiency" in American Economic Review 1966. The concept of x-efficiency is also used in the theory of bureaucracy.
(Economics, Social Studies)
The microeconomics of human fertility, and Xefficiency theory (the non-allocative aspects of inefficiency). The latter attempts to develop a mode of analysis which relaxes the maximisation assumption of conventional micro-theory and substitutes postulates under which individuals are non-maximisers when there is little pressure on them, approaching maximising behaviour as external pressure increases. Behaviour according to convention is an important aspect of this approach.
Also, current research involves the application of the prisoner’s dilemma paradigm to normal economic behaviour.