Baccalauréat, Licence Droit Doctorat en Droit University Lyon, 1937, 1940, 1943. Agrégation de l’Enseignement Supérieur, 1945.
Assistant Faculté de Droit de Lyon, 1941-1943. Thiers Fellow, Assistant Facilité de Droit, Paris, 1943-1944. Institute, de Science Economics Appliquée, 1944-1945.
Professor Faculté de Droit et des Sciences Economics, Grenoble, 1945-1959. Professor Faculté de Droit et des Sciences Economics, Paris, 1959-1971. Consultant, Missions, Angleterre, 1945, Pologne, 1955,1962, Chine Populaire, 1958, URSS, 1958, Algérie, 1962, 1964, 1970, 1983, Maroc, 1963, 1979, Portugal, 1975, Canada, 1979, Cameroun, 1979, Tunisie, 1981, Bénin et Togo, 1982, Italie, 1962,1981,1982, Grèce, 1982, 1983.
Professor of Economics, University Paris I Panthéon Sorbonne, Paris, since 1971. Editorial Boards, Esprit, 1945,1976, Economics Appendix, since 1950, Cahiers de l’Institute, Institution de Science Economie Appliquee (Economies et Sociétés), since 1950, Revista Internazionale di Scienze Economiche e Commerciali, 1962.
My early works concentrated on the financing of the French economy during and after the war, as well as on problems of the history of economic thought (Physiocratic theory of value). In the following period, many of my works were concerned with Marx’s economic thought and Marxist method. My book La doctrine économique et sociale de Karl Marx was the result of that research.
In the 1950s, my interests turned to labour economics and to comparative systems. This led to the preparation of my advanced text, Science économique et travail, and the creation in 1967 of the ‘Séminaire d’économie du travail’, of which I assumed the direction. The principal research themes of the seminar are: employment, wages, manpower programmes, working conditions, human labour costs, industrial relations, poverty (see Nos.
7, 8, 9 above). In my view, labour is the fundamental economic category from which all economics may be elaborated. The inter- pretation of economics in my book arises from the idea of work as the source of social/production relations. As far as the contents of the formal principles of economic reasoning are concerned, priority is given to assuring the basic necessities of life (basic needs) at the lowest human cost to labour, and the book proposes a new conception of economic systems as a combination of sub-systems (economic, legal, social, cultural, technological, etc.) which are partially autonomous and are governed by the characteristics of various periods in time.
More recently, I have also studied some aspects of cultural economics, which has led to the creation, under my direction, of a research group on the economy of the theatre, music, and painting, in the framework of the Seminar on Labour Economics. Italian speaking, I am the writer of the periodic Italian thought chronicle in Revue Economique and am writing a book about the history of Italian economic thought.